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Don't Let One Bad Apple Spoil Everything: Overgeneralization

Have you ever let one bad experience ruin your perception of an entire group of people or situation? That's the danger of overgeneralization, a cognitive bias that can lead to inaccurate and sweeping assumptions based on incomplete information.

While overgeneralization can sometimes be helpful for quick decision-making, it can also have negative effects on our lives. Overgeneralization can be seen everywhere from the media to politics, to everyday conversations such as:

  • All politicians are corrupt. While there may be some truth to this statement, it is unfair to generalize an entire group of people based on the actions of a few bad apples.

  • All women are bad drivers. This is an outdated stereotype that has been debunked by research showing that men are more likely to be involved in car accidents than women.

  • All teenagers are rebellious and disobedient. This is an overgeneralization that teenagers are difficult to deal with. In reality, many of them are well-behaved and responsible.

So, the next time you catch yourself making a sweeping statement, take a moment to consider whether it's truly accurate or fair to apply it to an entire group or situation.

Understanding Cognitive Distortions

Cognitive distortions are thought patterns that may cause us to misinterpret reality, which frequently results in unfavorable feelings and actions. Understanding them is crucial to spot and question such thought patterns, resulting in a more accurate and balanced picture of ourselves, other people, and the environment.

We covered “All or Nothing Thinking” in the article previously. We will now learn about “Overgeneralisation” cognitive distortion.

Causes of Overgeneralization

As humans, our thought processes can sometimes become skewed, leading to distorted perceptions of reality. In overgeneralization, we draw broad conclusions based on limited or singular experiences. Such thinking can lead to a rabbit hole of negativity that may interfere with future situations as well.

Some ways to break free from overgeneralization can be:

1. Personal Beliefs and Experiences

We all come into this world with our own unique set of beliefs, based on our upbringing, culture, and personal experiences. And sometimes, these beliefs can be limiting.

Example: Dayal was raised by a parent who constantly told him that he wasn't capable of doing anything. Soon, he developed the belief that he'll never be good enough, no matter what he does.

Overgeneralization: When Dayal encounters a setback or failure, he thinks, "I knew I wasn't good enough!"

Tip: This kind of thinking can be a tough cycle to crack, but it's important to remember that our beliefs are not always based on reality.

2. Negative Self-talk

Do you know the little voice in your head that loves to criticize you and point out your flaws? When we engage in negative self-talk, we're essentially reinforcing our negative beliefs about ourselves.

Example: Kimaya was nervous about giving a presentation at work. Instead of reframing it in a positive light, she tends to overgeneralize that something would go wrong.

Overgeneralization: She repeatedly tells herself, "I'm going to screw this up, just like I always do."

Tip: Constantly tell yourself, "I've prepared as much as I can, and I'm going to do my best." It might not eliminate your nerves, but it can help you approach the situation with a more open and positive mindset.

3. Media Influence and Societal Pressures

We're bombarded with messages from the media and society at large about what we should look like, how we should act, and what we should aspire to.

Example: Jagrati was scrolling through Instagram and saw a bunch of perfectly toned and tanned influencers. Not being able to meet those expectations led to overgeneralizing that she was not good enough.

Overgeneralization: Feeling insecure, she kept on thinking, "I'll never look like that, so why even bother trying?"

Tip: It's important to remember that those influencers are just one small subset of the population, and there's no one "right" way to look or act.

Negative Consequences of Overgeneralization

Assuming all dogs are aggressive just because you had a negative encounter with one is the equivalent of that. This prevents you from experiencing the thrill of meeting amiable, waggy-tailed dogs. Therefore, be careful not to generalize too much lest you miss out on the variety and richness of the world around you.

Anxiety and Depression

Overgeneralizing can lead to an increase in anxiety levels because it makes us feel like we have less control over our lives. If we're convinced that all of our romantic relationships are doomed to fail, we might not even bother trying to connect with others.

Similarly, if we believe that we're always going to be terrible at our jobs, we might not put in the effort to improve. It also makes us feel helpless, stuck, and like we're just waiting for the next bad thing to happen.


  • Tamanna is in a crowded place where she feels like everyone is watching and judging her. She gets sweaty palms and a racing heart, and she can't focus on anything else. She avoids going out in public as much as possible because of her social anxiety.

  • Ayub has been feeling low for weeks. He doesn't enjoy anything and struggles to get out of bed every day. He feels like a burden on his family and wonders if anyone would even notice if he disappeared.

Relationship Problems

Overgeneralization can wreak havoc on our relationships because it makes it harder to see the unique qualities and strengths of the people we care about. If we're convinced that all men are cheaters, we might not be able to fully trust even the most loyal partner.


  • Sunaina is a saver while Rajan is a spendthrift. Owing to their different perceptions of how to allocate funds for shared expenses, they have constantly been arguing.

  • When Angela married Arjun, little did she know that their different beliefs and traditions would result in conflicts and misunderstandings. They frequently crib on how to raise children or celebrate holidays.

Career Setbacks

Overgeneralizing can lead to missed opportunities, as it can cause us to limit ourselves and underestimate our abilities. If we're convinced that we're not good enough to take on a new project or role, we might not even bother applying for it. And if we believe that we'll never be successful in a certain field, we might not put in the effort to build the necessary skills.


  • After mastering a particular programming language, Jules is overgeneralizing that there's nothing else to learn. Such an attitude will make her miss out on opportunities to learn new technologies or expand her skill set thereby limiting her career growth.

  • Ajay is a sales executive who has had trouble dealing with Parsi customers. Convinced that all Parsi customers are difficult to deal with, he has started avoiding and treating them differently. This has resulted in lost sales opportunities and damage to the company's reputation.

Limiting Personal Growth and Opportunities

Overgeneralizing can lead to missed opportunities for personal growth, as it can cause us to close ourselves off on new experiences and perspectives. If we're convinced that we don't like something based on one unpleasant experience, we might miss out on the chance to discover something new and exciting. And if we believe that we'll never be good at something, we might not even bother trying.


  • Despite his exceptional teaching skills and subject knowledge, Aryan failed to become a faculty at Harvard University because he did not possess the requisite educational qualification.

  • Naina refused to travel abroad following a bad language barrier experience on a previous trip. She overgeneralized that all foreign countries will have the same communication problems.

Techniques to Overcome Overgeneralization

There are various methods that can help you beat overgeneralization and create a happier, healthier mindset. Some of the most successful methods to help you manage overgeneralization and stay grounded in reality are:

1. Mindfulness Practices

It's the technique of being focused on the present moment and doing so without passing judgment. It entails being open and curious as you pay attention to your ideas, feelings, and bodily experiences.

Example: To calm the mind, sit in silence while concentrating on your breath, a mantra, or a visualization.

2. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

It's a form of talk therapy that aims to alter unfavorable thought and conduct patterns. The foundation of CBT is the premise that our ideas, emotions, and behaviors are interrelated, and that by altering one of them, we may alter the other two.

Example: Acquiring relaxation skills, including deep breathing or progressive muscle relaxation, to lessen the bodily signs of stress or worry.

3. Reframing Negative Thoughts and Beliefs

It entails adopting a more balanced perspective when considering a bad idea or belief. We can lessen our feelings of fear, melancholy, and self-doubt by rephrasing unpleasant beliefs.

Example: Analyzing the arguments in favor of and against a pessimistic thought to generate more reasonable, realistic ideas.

4. Self-compassion and Self-care

By being kind and supportive to oneself, and by prioritizing self-care activities that promote health and happiness, individuals can cultivate a more positive and sustainable relationship with themselves and with others.

Example: Treat yourself with the same kindness and understanding you offer others, engage in regular exercise, take breaks to relax and recharge and spend time in nature to boost your mood and reduce stress.

Seeking Help

Seeking professional help doesn't mean that you're broken or flawed. It just means that you're human and that you recognize that you can't do everything on your own. Plus, when you invest in yourself and your mental health, you're giving yourself the gift of personal growth and change.

With the help of a professional, you can learn to navigate life's ups and downs with grace and resilience. You can develop a more positive outlook on yourself and the world around you. You can build healthier relationships and find deeper meaning and purpose in your life.

Summing Up

Recognizing and addressing overgeneralization cognitive distortion is like hitting the reset button on your brain. It's like giving your mind a much-needed reality check and telling it to get it together.

It takes a single negative experience and blows its way out of proportion, making you think that it's representative of your entire life. But it's a distorted way of thinking that can hold you back and make you feel like crap.

But with a little effort and awareness, you can banish it from your mind and live a happier, healthier, and more balanced life. And if all else fails, just remember the iconic words of the renowned singer Taylor Swift: "Shake it off, shake it off."

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